Publikationen

2019

ELECTROSTATIC ADHESION MICRO ROVER ROACH ON REXUS24

Abstract:

The experiment ROACH-RX was part of cycle 10 of the German-Swedish student programme REXUS/BEXUS and launched on REXUS24 on the 12th March 2017. It was the first step to evaluate the feasibility of a rover moving on the outside of a spacecraft in reduced gravity and vacuum using electrostatic adhesion pads. The mission aimed to manoeuvre a rover smaller than one CubeSat unit on a floor panel inside the rocket module during the microgravity phase. Unfortunately, REXUS24 suffered a non-nominal flight which prevented the experiment from executing as intended. Since, none of the objectives could be met and no scientific data was collected, this paper focuses on the post-flight analysis done in the scope of the failure investigation, lessons learned and subsequent work.

Publiziert:

24th ESA Symposium on European rocket & balloon programmes and related research 16-20 June 2019 • Essen • Germany

AutorIn:

Kevin Waizenegger, Annika Stier, Lena Bötsch, Christian Lange, Felix Schäfer, Robin Schweigert, Friedrich Tuttas, Maximilian von Arnim, Georg Herdrich, Sabine Klinkner, Adam S. Pagan, Manfred Ehresmann

A BUS SYSTEM FOR SMALL HIGH ALTITUDE BALLOON EXPERIMENTS

Abstract:

BUBBLE (BUoyancy Balloon Bus Lifted Experiments) is a balloon program of the student-run small satellite group KSat e.V.. A bus system is being developed for a high altitude balloon project in order to transport various payloads to a height of at least 30 km. The BUBBLE program includes the setup of the sounding balloon and gondola as well as its launch, tracking and recovery. The helium-filled balloon is designed to burst after approximately 2 hours of flight time at a height of 33 kilometers. The gondola will glide to the ground with a parachute.
This paper will present the BUBBLE program along with the detailed design and flight results of BUBBLE 1.

Publiziert:

24th ESA Symposium on European rocket & balloon programmes and related research 16-20 June 2019 • Essen • Germany

AutorIn:

Anastasia Natascha Bonidis, Martin Siedorf, Philipp Maier, Andreas Pahler, Christian Lange, Tim Reichmann, Sandro Schönhoff, Felix Schäfer, Adrian Causevic, Robin Schweigert, Philipp Sahli, Julia Schenkel, Jonas Früh, Maximilian von Arnim, Sina Gers, Matthias Burk, Tim Söhner

Experiment Results and post-flight Analysis of the ISS Student Experiment PAPELL

Abstract:

Pump Application using Pulsed Electromagnets for Liquid reLocation (PAPELL) was a fast-paced student experiment conducted on the International Space Station (ISS). The 1.5 U flight hardware was integrated internally in an experiment rack of the educational company DreamUp and was executed for over 60 days in total during a half-year stay on the ISS. A multidisciplinary team of more than 30 students of the University of Stuttgart has developed PAPELL within less than a year to flight readiness status. The students have organised themselves within the Small Satellite Student Society of the University of Stuttgart (KSat e.V.) and were supported by the Institute of Space Systems. The technology demonstration experiment aimed to show that a mechanic-free actuation method can be proven by utilising a magnetisable liquid, a ferrofluid, and localised magnetic fields. Such a mechanic-free device is likely to be highly reliable and to have long lifetime. The absence of mechanical moving parts corresponds to minimal wear and tear and generation of vibrations. Lessened qualification requirements reduce development time and overall costs. The PAPELL experiment demonstrated successfully that ferrofluid manipulation by the utilisation of localised magnetic fields generated by electromagnets is possible in a repeatable and reliable way in the microgravity environment of the ISS. The functions of a digital microfluidic circuit, i.e. droplet generation, movement, splitting and merging have been shown during the operation phase. These results allow for a wide variety of application developments based on different transportation modes observed when operating PAPELL. The experiment has been equipped with a sensor suite to ascertain the secondary effects of the experiment. The produced data shows promising results, as disadvantageous effects are minimal. Further, it can be determined that ferrofluid actuation in microgravity requires less power compared to Earth-based tests, while viscosity, surface tension and magnetic field shape effects become significant. Sensor data and analysis of ferrofluid dynamic influenced by magnetic fields in a micro-gravity environment and corresponding behaviour in a ground test environment yields critical information for modelling the corresponding physics and informing future designs. As PAPELL was returned to Earth after mission conclusion, subsequent hardware analysis is conducted for in-depth assessment and respective reproduction experiments are planned.

Publiziert:

70th International Astronautical Congress, At Washington D.C., USA

AutorIn:

Ehresmann, Manfred & Bölke, Daniel & Hofmann, Sonja & Hild, Franziska & Grunwald, Kira & Sütterlin, Saskia & Behrmann, Christopher & Heinz, Nicolas & Herdrich, Georg & Jemmali, Raouf. (2019).

 

PAPELL: Mechanic-free Actuators through Ferrofluids

Abstract:

PAPELL is a technology demonstration experiment that has been conducted on the ISS. It utilizes magnetic fields and a magnetisable liquid-ferrofluid and is a non-mechanical actuator. This principle can be exploited to move individual ferrofluid droplets, air bubbles and solids within dedicated experiment areas to demonstrate the capabilities, potential and limitations of this non-mechanical pump. It is expected that highly-reliable, long lifetime, low wear and tear mechanisms can be developed through the exploitation of the principles behind the PAPELL experiment. Concepts for future non-mechanical actuation applications based on ferrofluid interaction are briefly discussed.

Publiziert:

12th IAA Symposium on Small Satellites for Earth Observation, At Berlin, Germany

AutorIn:

Ehresmann, Manfred & Hild, Franziska & Grunwald, Kira & Behrmann, Christopher & Schweigert, Robin & Siedorf, Martin & Causevic, Adrian & Sütterlin, Saskia & Heinz, Nicolas & Bölke, Daniel & Herdrich, Georg

2018

ROACH-RX – Experiment on Adhesion and Locomotion Technologies aboard REXUS

Abstract:

The experiment “Robotic in-Orbit Analysis of Cover Hulls”, ROACH, examines the utilization of electrostatic adhesion as novel means of locomotion on spacecraft hulls in space. The experiment’s goal is to maneuver a rover, that has a size of approximately 10 x 10 x 10 cm³, inside of a sounding rocket during its microgravity phase and in a relevant vacuum.

Publiziert:

2nd Symposium on Space Educational Activities, Budapest 2018

AutorIn:

Lena Bötsch, Christian Lange, Maximilian von Arnim, Friedrich Tuttas, Felix Schäfer, Robin Schweigert, Kevin Waizenegger Manfred Ehresmann, Adam Pagan, Priv.-Doz. Dr. Georg Herdrich, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Sabine Klinkner

PAPELL: Interaction Study of Ferrofluid with Electromagnets of an Experiment on the International Space Station

Abstract:

On June 29 th 2018 the student experiment PAPELL (Pump Application using Pulsed Electromagnets for Liquid reLocation) was launched as part of the commercial resupply mission CRS-15 on a Dragon vehicle to the International Space Station. During the "Uberflieger" competition, organized by the German Aerospace Center (DLR), three proposed student experiments were selected to be conducted on the International Space Station (ISS). The experiment was designed and built by members of the Small Satellite Student Society University of Stuttgart (KSat e.V). and is going to utilize electromagnets to manipulate ferrofluid, a liquid with suspended iron oxide nanoparticles. This gives the liquid paramagnetic properties, and allows to realise a pumping mechanism without mechanical components inside a container of 10 x 10 x 15 cm. As a result of surface tension and magnetic forces the ferrofluid forms droplets, which can be moved along by utilising the magnetic fields of phased activated electromagnets. The space in between individual droplets will be used to transport small solids through a pipe system. This paper analyses and describes the interaction between the electromagnetic fields of electromagnets and ferrofluid. The ferrofluid is nominally non-magnetic, but when introduced to a sufficiently strong magnetic field the ferrofluid is magnetized and is attracted to the magnetic field source. This is due to the fact that suspended iron oxide nanoparticles will align with the magnetic field. Results from experiments on Earth will be used to improve the analysis of the in-orbit behaviour.

Publiziert:

69th International Austronautical Congress, At Bremen, Germany

AutorIn:

Causevic, Adrian & Sahli, Philipp & Hild, Franziska & Grunwald, Kira & Ehresmann, Manfred & Herdrich, Georg.

PAPELL: Final Student Experiment Design of a Non-mechanical Pumping System on the ISS

Abstract:

PAPELL ("Pump Application using Pulsed Electromagnets for Liquid reLocation") is a technology demonstration of a non-mechanical pumping mechanism currently in operation aboard the ISS. The teamwork of more than 30 students of the Small Satellite Student Society KSat e.V. with the support of the Institute of Space Systems of the University of Stuttgart (IRS) lead to one of three winning experiment proposals of the "Überflieger" student competition, which has been issued by the German Aerospace Center (DLR). This competition called for the development of three projects and their conduction on the International Space Station (ISS). The finally designed experiments need to comply with requirements given by a NanoRacks NanoLab Cube of 10 x 10 x 15 cm³ with a USB-3 connection and a limited power supply of 4.5 W. A development period of one year has been given by DLR. PAPELL is realized by utilizing the magnetic interaction between electromagnets and a ferrofluid. A ferrofluid is a magnetisable liquid consisting of iron oxide nanoparticles and a carrier fluid. It is attracted to sufficiently strong magnetic field sources. By switching individual electromagnets, magnetic fields are generated locally. Single ferrofluid droplets are transported along a series of activated electromagnets. With the removal of mechanical components, friction and abrasion effects are minimised and a high-lifetime pumping system can be achieved. It can be expected that wear and maintenance will decrease significantly, while simultaneously a minimisation of vibrations in operation compared to conventional pumps is possible. Ideally, less overall noise, minimal vibration impacts on other payloads and longer operation time are achieved. The first part of the experiment is conducted on a hexagonal grid of electromagnets. The transportation of single ferrofluid droplets in linear and complex pattern is analysed. In additional experiments, splitting and merging of droplets and moving of fluid groups is investigated. In a tubular system the second part of the experiment is performed, where trapped air and injected solid spheres are transported between individual ferrofluid droplets. This shows the transportation capability of the system for different phases of matter. PAPELL was launched to ISS on June 29 th , 2018 with Falcon 9 SpaceX-15. The experiment is part of the "Horizons" mission of ESA astronaut Alexander Gerst. Bulk data for detailed analysis is expected in October 2018. It is expected that the level of basic knowledge gained by this experiment can lead to extended analysis, verification and validation activity.

Publiziert:

69th International Astronautical Congress, At Bremen, Germany

AutorIn:

Hild, Franziska & Grunwald, Kira & Sütterlin, Saskia & Heinz, Nicolas & Aslan, Sinan & Grabi, Florian & Sauer, Moritz & Schweigert, Robin & Ziegler, Paul & Hell, Mathias & Hofmann, Sonja & Schneider, Maximilian & Frank, Frieder & Korn, Christian & Causevic, Adrian & Waizenegger, Kevin & Behnke, Alexander & Hertel, Victor & Sahli, Philipp & Herdrich, Georg.

PAPELL: SOLID-STATE PUMPING MECHANISM

Abstract:

This paper elaborates on the principles behind and potential applications of the PAPELL experiment that is operated on the International Space Station. The "Pump Application using Pulsed Electromagnets for Liquid reLocation" experiment is a technology demonstrator for a non-mechanic pumping mechanism, based on ferrofluid and electromagnets. A ferrofluid is a paramagnetic liquid, which becomes magnetic when exposed to a sufficiently strong magnetic field. The liquid is then attracted to the point of largest magnetic field strength. By using electromagnets as local magnetic field sources ferrofluid and other substances can be moved without mechanical interaction. The experiment aims to demonstrate that a low-maintenance long lifetime mechanism can be achieved through this principle.

Publiziert:

Human Spaceflight and Weightlessness Science 2018, At Toulouse, France

AutorIn:

Ehresmann, Manfred & Grunwald, Kira & Aslan, Sinan & Grabi, Florian & Schweigert, Robin & Ziegler, Paul & Hell, Mathias & Schneider, Maximilian & Frank, Frieder & Korn, Christian & Causevic, Adrian & Waizenegger, Kevin & Behnke, Alexander & Hertel, Victor & Sahli, Philipp & Bölke, Daniel & Siedorf, Martin & Behrmann, Christopher & Ott, Tobias & Hofmann, Sonja. (2018)

PAPELL: Experiments, Prototyping and Mechanical Engineering

Abstract:

In this paper the experiments conducted, prototypes developed and mechanical engineering undertaken during the student project "Pump Application using pulsed electromagnets for liquid reLocation" (PAPELL) are depicted, with special consideration to the related education aspects.

Publiziert:

2 nd Symposium on Space Educational Activities, At Budapest, Hungary

AutorIn:

Sütterlin, Saskia & Heinz, Nicolas & Hild, Franziska & Grunwald, Kira & Hell, Mathias & Hofmann, Sonja & Ziegler, Paul & Korn, Christian & Schneider, Maximilian & Frank, Frieder & Ehresmann, Manfred & Herdrich, Georg & Helmer, Dorothea.

PAPELL: Student team lead tenets and challenges in an international project

Abstract:

This Paper will detail educational aspects as well as communication, leadership and bureaucratic challenges encountered during the development of the ISS experiment PAPELL, which is an acronym for "Pump Application using Pulsed Electromagnets for Liquid reLocation". The experiment is a student project conducted mainly by members of the Small Satellite Student Society of the University of Stuttgart (KSat e.V.) and the Institute of Space Systems of the University of Stuttgart.

 

Publiziert:

2nd Symposium on Space Educational Activities, At Budapest, Hungary

AutorIn:

Grunwald, Kira & Hild, Franziska & Sütterlin, Saskia & Heinz, Nicolas & Aslan, Alp & Grabi, Florian & Sauer, Moritz & Schweigert, Robin & Ehresmann, Manfred & Herdrich, Georg.

2017

Increasing the Success of CAPE using Precursor Missions

Abstract:

The CubeSat Atmospheric Probe for Education (CAPE) is a CubeSat currently in development at the University of Stuttgart. Its main goal is to establish a platform for performing in-situ testing and qualification of ablative heat shield materials and a technology demonstrator for the pulsed plasma thruster PETRUS. This is achieved by a one-unit Atmospheric Entry Module (AEM) also known as MIRKA2 (MIkro-RückkehrKApsel 2 / micro re-entry capsule 2) that is able to gather data during re-entry. To guarantee a controlled re-entry of the AEM, a Service and Deorbit Module (SDM) will use electric propulsion for orbit control. In order to demonstrate operational readiness and for risk mitigation, several subsystems have been tested in precursor missions MIRKA2-RX (MIRKA2 – REXUS), MIRKA2-HyEnD (MIRKA2 – Hybrid Engine Development) and MIRKA2-ICV (MIRKA2 – Inflight Communication Verification). In this paper the results of the precursor missions are discussed with regards to improving the (sub)system design of CAPE.

 

Publiziert:

11th IAA Symposium on Small Satellites for Earth Observation, Berlin 2017

AutorIn:

Starlinger, V & Behnke, Alexander & Baumann, J.-P & Belser, V & Ehresmann, Manfred & Franz, J & Friedrich, L & Galla, D & Gäßler, B & Grabi, Florian & Hießl, R & Koller, Markus & Kumpf, P & Müller, N & Papanikolaou, A & Rieser, Jakob & Schäfer, F & Schöneich, V & Seiler, Helge & Laufer, Rene

Bis 2017

MIRKA2 - RX - A REXUS FLIGHT EXPERIMENT IN PREPARATION FOR THE ATMOSPHERIC ENTRY CUBESAT MISSION CAPE

Zusammenfassung:The progress of the CubeSat project CubeSat Atmospheric Probe for Education (CAPE) is presented. Furthermore, the results of the recent sounding rocket experiment “micro re-entry capsule 2 REXUS” (MIRKA2-RX) are discussed with regards to the later application in the CAPE mission. During this mission a flight prototype with full sensor setup was ejected from a REXUS sounding rocket at 78 km altitude. The ejection was recorded and qualified a specially designed ejection mechanism for the capsule. Unfortunately the capsule did not activate during ejection, but was later activated on impact and recovered. An electrical mirror system on the launcher was used as a backup, which allowed to qualify the electrical system during flight phase. The focus of this paper is the design process of MIRKA2-RX, its follow up projects and the lessons learned for the CAPE mission.

Veröffentlichungshintergrund:7. Nano Satellite Conference, Bulgaria 2016

Autoren:D.Galla4, V.Starlinger4, G. Herdrich1,2, A.S. Pagan1,S. Fasulas1, S. Klinkner1, R. Laufer2,3, C. Montag1 und das KSAT Studententeam41 Institut für Raumfahrtsysteme, Universität Stuttgart, Deutschland2 CASPER, Baylor University, Waco, Texas, USA3 Space Lab, University of Cape Town, South Africa4 J.P. Baumann, A. Behnke, V.Belser, M. Ehresmann, J. Franz, L. Friedrich, D. Galla, B. Gäßler, F. Grabi, R. Hießel, M. Koller, P. Kumpf, N. Müller, A. Papanikolaou, J. Rieser, F. Schäfer, V. Schöneich, H. Seiler,  M. Siedorf, V. Starlinger, A. Stier, A. Tabelander, F. Vardar, S. Wizemann

MICRO RETURN CAPSULE 2 – REXUS EXPERIMENT RESULTS

Abstract:The Micro Return Capsule 2 REXUS is a technology demonstrator for a CubeSat standard compliant return capsule with a maximum diameter of 10 cm. Such a capsule will allow for low cost atmospheric re-entry missions to qualify thermal protection systems and study of occurring high enthalpy flows. To qualify the flight behavior of such a miniaturized capsule, functionality of selected components, the communication ability and the overall design a sub-orbital sounding rocket experiment was performed with the capsule being ejected in the apogee. A specifically designed separation mechanism was used to eject the capsule and qualified for utilization in later missions in orbit. The capsule itself was equipped with several thermocouples, pressure sensors and a thermopile to measure future heatshield performance and parameters of the surrounding environment during descent. An IMU and a GPS receiver were used to determine attitude and position of the capsule and the data was transmitted via the Iridium satellite network to produce an estimated landing location of the capsule. The capsule was successfully recovered. An electrical mirror system of the capsule resided within the sounding rocket to generate additional reference data of the flight.

A Service and Deorbit Module for CubeSat Applications

Abstract:A Service and Deorbit Module (SDM) based on a 3U CubeSat nano satellite is presented, which serves as a service module and platform for experiments and sensors for the CubeSat Atmospheric Probe for Education (CAPE) project currently under development at the University of Stuttgart. Its main objectives are to perform as a technology demonstrator for a Pulsed Plasma Thruster (PPT) based on the Institute of Space System's ADD-SIMPLEX propulsion system, to facilitate a controlled deorbit and atmospheric entry of the miniature re-entry capsule MIRKA2, and to perform extensive atmospheric in-situ measurements in the lower thermosphere over a wide range of altitudes.

CubeSat Atmospheric Probe for Education (CAPE)

Abstract:The CubeSat Atmospheric Probe for Education (CAPE) mission is a nano satellite project currently under development at the Institute of Space Systems (IRS) of the University of Stuttgart, Germany, and its partners. The primary purpose of CAPE is educational, enabling engineering/science students to participate extensively in the design, operation and scientific evaluation of a multifaceted spaceflight project, based on the CubeSat pico/nano satellite standard. CAPE comprises two individual, initially coupled vehicles. The Service and Deorbit Module (SDM) constitutes a 3U CubeSat, tasked with effecting a controlled gradual de-orbit manoeuvre while simultaneously performing atmospheric measurements. It also serves as a transport for the 1U Micro Return Capsule MIRKA2, which is to be released upon attaining a specific separation altitude. Both systems re-enter Earth’s atmosphere individually, with MIRKA2 surviving the critical re-entry phase and the SDM demising in full. This contribution presents a broad overview of the CAPE mission concept in general and its motivation. The major scientific and technological objectives are defined and discussed. In addition, potential future applications of the technologies developed for or qualified in the context of CAPE, as well as the relevance of scientific data obtained therewith are briefly explored.

A System Approach towards a miniaturized Pulsed Plasma Thruster for a CubeSat-Type Deorbit Module

Abstract:A pulsed plasma thruster, based on a rescaled variant of the ADD-SIMPLEX thruster system developed at IRS, is considered for the primary propulsion system of the educational CubeSat mission CAPE (CubeSat Atmospheric Probe for Education), which is to perform atmospheric measurements and to serve as a cost-effective technology demonstrator both for high performance ablative heat shield materials and micro-propulsion systems. The system comprises a Service and Deorbit Module (SDM) as well as a miniaturized re-entry capsule called MIRKA2 (Mikro-Rückkehrkapsel 2). The former is designed to progressively reduce the altitude from an initial level corresponding to that of the ISS and to then initiate a de-orbit manoeuvre once an appropriate separation altitude is reached. Atmospheric data from the lower thermosphere is collected during this mission phase, after which the return capsule is ejected from the SDM. The SDM then proceeds to burn up in Earth’s atmosphere following MIRKA2’s largely unscathed return. The benefits of employing a PPT for a CubeSat deorbit mission include the potential to dynamically alter the pulse frequency in order to efficientlyadapt to the varying availability of electrical power depending on the respective orbital characteristics. Further benefits and also issues are identified and discussed. Suitable scaling laws are adopted and applied to the ADD-SIMPLEX configuration. A preliminary analysis approximating the performance, mass and dimensions of such a system is performed and evaluated within the context of the most recent CAPE mission specifications and system design.

MIRKA2-RX – AN EDUCATIONAL PRECURSOR MISSION FOR A RE-ENTRY BASED CUBESAT MISSION
Zusammenfassung:The paper presents the results of the experiment MIRKA2-RX (Micro Return Capsule 2 REXUS). The experiment is a precursor mission to the CubeSat project CubeSat Atmospheric Probe for Education (CAPE) and was launched in March 2016 with the sounding rocket REXUS 19 in Sweden. The Micro Return Capsule 2 (MIRKA2) was ejected at the apogee of the rocket ’s trajectory. A mirror system of the capsules electronic remained in the rocket and collected additional sensor data. The experiment qualified the separation mechanism LOTUS (Low Orbit Technical Unit Separator), the aerodynamic behaviour, and the electronics of the capsule during its flight in micro gravity and subsequent return. Additionally, the results of the follow-up missions MIRKA2-HyEnd and MIRKA2-ICV are explained and discussed. These experiments are built, designed and constructed by students from the University of Stuttgart and members of KSat, in collaboration with the Institute of Space Systems (IRS).

Veröffentlichungshintergrund:23rd ESA PAC Symposium 2017ESA Symposium über Europäische Höhenforschungsraketen und -ballon Programme und dazugehörige Forschungsprogramme.

Aufbau des Elektroniksystems der MIRKA2 Mikrorückkehrkapsel und dessen Flugergebnisse auf REXUS 19
Zusammenfassung:Diese Publikation behandelt das Design des Elektroniksystems der MIRKA2 Mikrorückkehrkapsel, einem Systemzur Erprobung von Hitzeschutzmaterialien im CubeSat Format. Des Weiteren werden die beim Flug auf derHöhenforschungsrakete REXUS 19 gewonnenen Ergebnisse im Bezug auf das Elektroniksystem vorgestellt.

Veröffentlichungshintergrund:DGLR Kongress 2016 in Brauenschweig

Autoren:M.T. Koller1,4, G. Herdrich1,2, A.S. Pagan1,S. Fasulas1, S. Klinkner1, R. Laufer2,3, C. Montag1 und das KSAT Studententeam41 Institut für Raumfahrtsysteme, Universität Stuttgart, Deutschland2 CASPER, Baylor University, Waco, Texas, USA3 Space Lab, University of Cape Town, South Africa4 J.P. Baumann, A. Behnke, M. Ehresmann, J. Franz, D. Galla, B. Gäßler, F. Grabi,  M. Koller, N. Müller, A. Papanikolaou, J. Rieser, F. Schäfer, V. Schöneich, H. Seiler,  M. Siedorf, V. Starlinger, A. Stier, A. Tabelander, F. Vardar, S. Wizemann

AEROTHERMODYNAMIC RE-ENTRY ANALYSIS OF THE CUBESAT- SIZED ENTRY VEHICLE MIRKA2
Abstract:An aerothermodynamic trajectory analysis for the planned Micro Return Capsule 2 (MIRKA2) in combination with a mission analysis for the whole de-orbit and re-entry system is presented. The picosatellite CubeSat Atmospheric Probe for education (CAPE) combines MIRKA2 and a Service and Deorbit Module (SDM) in a 3U+ CubeSat [1]. A micro-propulsion system and a separation mechanism on board the SDM enables a controlled de-orbit from the ISS orbit, followed by the separation and re-entry of MIRKA2. Utilising the IRS in-house code REENT [2], the trajectory of the re-entry probe is simulated. An aerodynamic model allows the computation of the capsule's drag coefficient in all flight regimes. Therewith, velocity, pressure, deceleration and heat loads at the stagnation point are calculated during the entire flight.The findings reveal critical aerothermodynamic aspects of the re-entry of MIRKA2 and are the basis of detailed CFD analysis in order to qualify the vehicle.

Cube Sat-sized Re-entry Capsule MIRKA2
Abstract:An experimental CubeSat-sized atmospheric entry capsule, designed to validate the behaviour of the Resin-Impregnated Carbon Ablator (RICA) heat shield is currently under development at the University of Stuttgart. To optimize the development effort, a shape resembling NASA's Re-Entry Breakup Recorder (REBR) is selected for the capsule due to its well-known flight behaviour, and scaled to fit CubeSat constraints. The capsule is to be deployed from a dedicated service and deorbit module (SDM) at a separation altitude of approximately 125 km. The heat shield behaviour is characterised using thermocouples, dynamic pressure sensors and acceleration sensors. Minimal communication equipment is used for data transmission.

E248 Micro-Reentry-Capsule-2 REXUS
Abstract:The Micro-Re-Entry-Capsule-2-REXUS (MIRKA2-RX) student experiment is a precursor project for the CubeSat Atmospheric Probe for Education (CAPE) at the Institute of Space Systems (IRS) of the University of Stuttgart. CAPE is a CubeSat system, which shall allow a miniature capsule to perform a re-entry to qualify new ablator materials and to assess a respective aerothermodynamic data base. MIRKA2-RX is intended for the validation of the capsule’s flight behaviour and to ensure thefunctionality of the electrical and communication system. The experiment is segmented into three components: The first segment is the capsule, which is a version of the later flight model, containing pressure, temperature, acceleration and radiation sensors. A dummy heat shield will be used, as the expected temperatures will not exceed critical levels during this suborbital return. The second segment is the newly developed ejectionmechanism. It is designed to perform a reliable and simple ejection of the capsule using pyro cutters.The third segment is a replica of the electric system of the capsule, which will reside within the experiment in the REXUS rocket during the entire compartment flight. It is used as a backup system in case of communicationmalfunction and if the capsule is irretrievable. This data can be used to evaluate the performance of the electric system independently. When the sounding rocket reaches its apogee, the capsule will be ejected. During its return to Earth, it will collectand transmit data generated by the sensors. After itsimpact, it is attempted to retrieve the capsule and toextract additional data stored on board.